Tag Archives: David Little

Preparation of medicinal solutions

I’m often asked about preparation of remedies for dosing, especially in connection with use of LM potencies.  I’ve quoted David Little’s article on Solutions Large and Small below in full.  You can read the original here.  David also describes the experiments he carried out.


Solutions Large and Small
Preparation of the Medicinal Solution

The question of how to make a medicinal solution has been raised. Our research group uses the Hahnemannian Standard as discussed in The Chronic Diseases and The 6th Organon of the Healing Arts. The reason for this is twofold. Continue reading


בונינגהאוזן ושיטת ה-LM – חלק 4: סיכום ומסקנות לגבי טיפול ב-LM

It was Boenninghausen’s opinion that the actions of the LM potency were very similar to the “our present high and highest potencies” . By 1863 Boenninghausen personally used the 200C potency made by Hahnemann’s methods and Jenichen’s 1M, 2M, 4M, 6M, 8M up to 40M. The Baron also had experience with Korsakov’s 1000th and 1500th . This offers a glimpse into the true medical powers of the LM potency. The Baron noticed that the recovery of both cases, one a dangerous acute disorder and the other a complicated chronic disease, was comparatively short and that the first action of the remedies could be clearly distinguished. This shows how the LM potency acts quickly and deeply yet these preparations have a different medicinal quality than the C potencies. Hahnemann’s opening potencies were between the 0/1 and 0/7. These seven degrees have remedial powers that are similar to the moderate to high potency centesimal remedies and must be treated with the greatest respect.

In over 20 years of comparing the LM with the C potency I would say that the LM 0/1 acts deeper and longer than the 30C. If one studies Hahnemann’s cases one comes to the conclusion that Hahnemann thought likewise. All things equal, I would say the LM 0/1, 0/2 and 0/3 act with a similar depth to the 200C or 1M although the durations might not be as long. The LM 0/4, 0/5 and 0/6 act as deeply as much higher potencies. To think the LM remedies are low potencies that can be repeated daily in every case is a big mistake.

This higher power yet slightly shorter duration can be used to one’s advantage in many chronic cases. This is because one can make more frequent adjustment of the dose, potency and repetition so that the remedy can be customized more artistically to the case. If one is continually forced to wait out overly long remedy actions, it is hard to make adjustments when the remedy is causing aggravations or accessory symptoms due to too large a dose or too high a potency. These long durations can also be counterproductive when the wrong remedy is chosen. Being able to adjust the size of the dose, the level of potency and the repetition according to the present time and circumstance has its advantages in complex cases.

The LM potency will cause strong aggravations when misused. I have seen it, my colleagues have seen it, and I have received many letters from patients who were strongly aggravated by receiving the LM potency daily or alternate days in a mechanical fashion. Many times they felt very, very good in the first week or so (strikingly progressive amelioration) and then got worse and worse because the dose was never slowed down or stopped. It is always best to either slow down or stop the remedy when there is a sudden great improvement. These are the clinical facts.

I have found that overmedication either causes the patient to become non responsive to the remedy due to overexposure or it causes aggravations that make them overly sensitive to the remedy. Sometimes this can make it hard to use even the correct remedy later in the case. The cases that are spoiled the most are those who only needed a single dose, infrequent doses or only a short series of doses but were never given a chance to respond correctly. What should be one’s “best case scenarios” turns into one’s “worst case situations”. One must be very careful with the LM potency because overmedication will cause aggravations, accessory symptoms or adverse counter actions of the vital force if abused. Hahnemann had some strong aggravations at times! Like all homoeopathic potencies, the LMs must be treated with the greatest respect!

Hahnemann spoke about raising the LM potency every 7 to 14 days in aphorism 248 but the Paris casebooks show that this was only a baseline example. He would sometimes raise his potencies very fast before the bottle was finished and in other cases he would keep the patient on the same potency interspersed with or followed by placebo for longer periods. Sometimes he would move up to find a better potency and at other times he would move downward because of aggravations. There was no fixed rule. The time of raising the potency was dependant on when the medicine was consumed, how much placebo he was giving, and the symptoms and circumstances.

I know that some give all patients the daily or alternate day dose and only stop if they see aggravations. This only reflects one aspect of Hahnemann’s method. It does not take into account what Hahnemann says in aphorism 246, Dr. Croserio’s eyewitness account or what is found in the Paris casebooks. Sometimes Hahnemann gave a single dose and placebos and other times he gave a series of split-doses at intervals like daily, alternate days, or on the third day, etc. It all depended on the cause, symptoms and circumstances affecting the patient and the action of the remedy. Hahnemann constantly alternated series of medicinal doses with placebos and waiting and watching. He used so many different methods that a simplistic mechanical approach cannot embrace his artistic techniques. As Croserio said,

“It would be impossible for me to give in a letter all the shadings of his treatment. By your constant correspondence with the learned sage you have had abundant opportunity to learn to appreciate his rare powers of observation, and you will therefore easily see that his mode of action was not always the same.”

Hahnemann varied the adjustments of the size of dose, the degree of the potency, and the intervals of repetition based on what the individual needed. He did not have one predetermined method that was supposed to suit all patients. The 6th Organon only contains baseline examples not a fixed mechanical method. He used single doses and infrequent repetition interspersed by placebo as well as frequent repetition daily, every other day, every three days, etc. One cannot oversimplify Hahnemann’s methods because “his mode of action was not always the same.” All of his case management strategies were individualized to suit the symptoms, time and circumstances.

There are too many people that think they can give the LM potency daily for long periods in a mechanical fashion. One patient was told to take the LM potency daily for 6 weeks just to test the remedy! The idea that one can give the daily dose for months is often separated from the words if necessary found in the footnote to aphorism 246. I have not seen one LM case in the Paris Casebooks where Hahnemann thought it was necessary. The Founder used almost as much placebo as medicine!

Hahnemann groomed Baron von Boenninghausen as one of his successors. That is why the Founder shared the methods of the LM potency with him before he passed away. The Baron knew the pharmaceutical methods of making the remedies as well as the case management scenarios necessary to safely apply the new dynamizations. Other than Melanie Hahnemann, Boenninghausen seems to be the only person who was privy to this information. He was well placed to teach the new system and comment on the ramifications of the 6th edition. It seems that this was the Founder’s original intention.

Melanie Hahnemann asked Boenninghausen not to release information about the LM potency until after she published the 6th Organon. Unfortunately, Madam did not complete the task and the Baron passed away before he was allowed to share his experience. Melanie was the only remaining person with knowledge of the LM potency, but unfortunately she never released the 6th Organon or Hahnemann’s casebooks. This was a great loss to the homoeopathic community as the 6th Organon and the LM potency became one of the lost teachings of Samuel Hahnemann.

In our times there has been a great resurgence of interest in Hahnemann’s advanced methods and the 6th Organon is finally receiving the attention it deserves. Although there has been some confusion and agenda-driven abuse of this subject, a group of mature homoeopaths is now spreading the true techniques throughout the world. I am sure Samuel Hahnemann would be pleased to know that his final efforts were not in vain.

I hope this information is useful to the homoeopathic community.

Similia Minimus,
Sincerely, David Little

את הטקסט המלא של המאמר ניתן לקרוא כאן

בונינגהאוזן ושיטת ה-LM – חלק 3: מכתב של ד"ר קרוזריו

Dr. Croserio’s Letter

Boenninghausen shared the two LM cases sent by Hahnemann in Stapf’s Archive. Dr. Stapf raised a number of questions about the Founder’s revolutionary new methods. In order to answer these queries the Baron sought help of Dr. Croserio, who was a close colleague of Samuel and Melanie Hahnemann. Only Croserio and Jahr were invited to Hahnemann’s deathbed to see the Founder lying in state. Dr. Croserio assisted Melanie in her practice after the Founder passed away and defended Melanie in court when she was charged with practicing without a license. For these reasons, I call him “faithful Dr. Croserio”.

Dr. Croserio responded to Boenninghausen with a letter written on Jan. 28th, 1844 that was published with Boenninghausen’s commentary in the Neus Archive f.hom, Heilkunst Volume 1 number 12, 1844. This letter may be found in Boenninghausen’s Lesser Writings, in an article called Hahnemann’s Doses of Medicines. The Baron wrote:

“In order to be quite sure as to the matter I applied to those homeopaths in Paris, who were most intimate with Hahnemann, visited him almost daily, and in consequence, were best informed as to his practice during the last times , namely, to Dr. Croserio, from whom I had before had a very friendly communication, could therefore also feel sure that he would give me as detailed an account as possible.”

Hahnemann’s Paris casebooks contain only personal notes of the Founder’s practice and leave many questions unanswered. He rarely wrote down exactly how often he was administering his remedies. Boenninghausen understood this, and for this reason he sought an eyewitness account to fill in the details. Dr. Croserio’s letter is a very valuable testimony because it gives insights as to how Hahnemann actually practiced in the clinic. Dr. Croserio wrote:

“As to his [Hahnemann’s] mode in which he prescribed the medicines to be taken I am able to give you all the information that you may wish, as I have quite frequently been witness of it.”

Croserio confirmed that Hahnemann was dissolving 1, or rarely 2, tiny pills into 8 to 15 tablespoons of water and taking a tablespoon of this solution and stirring it into a tumbler of water. He notes that Hahnemann would start with 1 spoonful of the solution from the tumbler and increase this amount on successive doses, if necessary:

“until he observed some action.”

“Then he [Hahnemann] would diminish the dose or would stop the medicine.”

Dr. Croserio stated that when Hahnemann saw definite medicinal action he either diminished the dose or stopped the remedy and gave the patient placebo. This is an extremely important observation of a technique that is not clearly elucidated in the 6th Organon. This pattern, however, was witnessed in the case of O-T where Hahnemann used almost as much placebo as medicine. This is common to all the cases found in the Paris casebooks.

Dr. Croserio stated in his letter that Hahnemann frequently gave single doses by olfaction . The doctor wrote:

“Hahnemann in the last years of his practice seemed to devote his whole dexterity to continually diminish the doses of his medicines. On this account he in the last years frequently contented himself to allow his patients to smell of the medicine. In chronic diseases he would in no case allow the patient to smell at the medicines oftener than once a week, and would give nothing but sugar besides; and in this way he would make the most admirable cures, even in cases where we others had not been able to do anything.”

Dr. Croserio noted in his eyewitness account that Hahnemann “frequently” gave single doses by olfaction followed by at least 7 days of placebo. The Paris casebooks confirm the fact that the Founder often administered single doses by olfaction and occasionally by oral solution and gave the patient placebo for at least 1 week! In some cases he would wait for longer periods than 7 days, even up to 14 or 21 days before repeating the dose. Some patients received infrequent olfactions and placebos almost exclusively. This proves that Hahnemann did not always use the daily or alternate day dose. His method was artistic not mechanical and was individualized by the symptoms, time and circumstances.

Sometimes Hahnemann gave a single dose followed by at least 7 days of placebo while he waited and watched. At other times, he gave a short series of 3 to 7 doses over a period of seven days and had the patient come back in one week. At this time, he would re-evaluate the case. If the remedy caused a strong medicinal action or an aggravation, he would give the patient placebos for another seven days. When there was a strikingly increasing amelioration he also would stop the repetition as long as this state lasted. If he thought he needed more medicinal action he would continue the repetitions for another week.

In this way, Hahnemann individualized his case management strategies. He did not give the C or LM potency daily in a mechanical manner over long periods. He constantly interpolated and followed his medicinal doses with placebos at different intervals during the progress of the case. This balance of single doses and infrequent repetitions and split-doses at rapid intervals to speed the cure offers a wide range of methods in the clinic. The idea Hahnemann gave the daily dose to everyone is a complete falsehood.

These are very important details that do not come through clearly in the 6th Organon. That is one of the reasons why it is not sufficient to try and practice only by the text. One must study Hahnemann’s casebooks and eyewitness account of his practice to grasp the whole method. One also needs to consult those who have experience with Hahnemann’s true clinical methods. The Founder frequently alternated a period of medicinal doses with period of placebos throughout the treatment. In this way, he found a perfect balance between acting and observing and waiting and watching. Boenninghausen commented further on this important aspect of Hahnemann’s practice.

“This passage in the communication of Dr. Croserio give the most clear and complete exposition of the mode practiced by the closely observing Master of the art during the last times, on his patients, and explains most satisfactorily what might have appeared obscure in the two cases lately reported. The addition “until he felt an effect” is of the greatest importance, and must always be closely observed, in order that nothing may be spoiled afterwards by giving too much or too often.

Dr. Croserio also notes:

“In order to pacify the patients or their relatives he frequently allowed them to take simple sugar of milk”

Hahnemann called placebos a gift from God in the Chronic Diseases. He used placebos to satisfy his patients and their relatives and to keep the clients away from other medicines. Many of his patients were so conditioned to the idea that they needed medicine daily that it was necessary to use placebos. Sometimes their relatives were even worse than the ill person! In my practice I try to educate my clients to the fact that homeopathic remedies have actions that last for long durations and they do not need medicine daily under most circumstances.

There are, however, situations where the placebo is a very useful tool. The most common example is when there is an aggravation or healing crisis that will pass off quickly but the patient is desperate for help. Here the placebo effect often provides the attention, comfort and psychological relief necessary to pass through a difficult moment. This is a trade secret that should never be related to the patient or other persons even to make a point. Placebo is a psychological simillimum for the patient who thinks they need medicine when they do not.

The LM remedies are not a “low potency” system. One cannot compare the C and LM potency solely by the amount of the original substance left in the dilution. There is a great difference between a mathematical and dynamic equivalence. 1 pill of the LM 0/1 potency in an 8 tablespoon solution has around the same amount of medicinal substance as the 6C but its power is much greater due to its 1/50,000 dilution and 100 succussions per dilution. Boenninghausen was well aware of this fact. In 1863, just one year before his death, the Baron reminisced over the two LM cases Hahnemann had sent him in 1843.

“Of the other remedies used in these two cures (Sulphur, Mercurius, Nitric Acid), new dynamizations were used, which will be described in the next edition of the Organon , the peculiar preparation of which is known to me and which requires less time and trouble, but essentially presents our present high and highest potencies, but having given my word of honor, I am not as yet at liberty to publish the same. Also these the preparations were given in the dose of one single pellet either dissolved in just as much water, or applied by simply smelling of it. By means of these before unheard of minimal doses, there was effected a restoration of both these cases in a comparatively short time; the first of these cases was an acute ailment of the brain, the other a chronic complicated disease. It is especially curious that the proper action of these remedies, and even their first action, could be clearly distinguished in the course of the disease.”

The Lesser Writings; C. M. F. Boenninghausen , Boenninghausen’s Last Work, Atropa Belladonna L, page 316.